Explosives Regulations 2015

Explosives Regulations, in Chapter 4 of the Mine Health and Safety Regulations under the MHS Act, changed on 10 July 2015. The full text is posted here.

Government Gazette 38970 contains GNR 584 of 2015. The Minister of Mineral Resources promulgated the New Explosives Regulations, effective within three months, thus in October 2015.

Risk assessments are part of several required procedures. Precautions against igniting flammable liquids, and preventing dust explosions, arealso covered

The full text is posted below, including some apparent numbering inconsistencies.

Security in respect of explosives
4.1(1) The employer must take reasonably practicable measures to prevent persons not authorised by the employer from –
(a) gaining access to explosives;
(b) being in possession of explosives, or
(c) removing or attempting to remove explosives from a mine

41(2) Only persons authorised by the employer may –
(a) gain access to or attempt to gain access to explosives;
(b) be in possession of explosives, or
(o) remove or attempt to remove explosives from a mine.

4.1(3) Subject to regulation 4.2(2), no person may, or cause or permit any other person to bury, hide, submerge or abandon any explosives.

Receipt, storage, issuing and transportation of explosives
42(1) The employer must ensure that:
(a) explosives that are not being transported or prepared for use are stored in explosive stores, silos or containers which are securely locked or, as far as reasonably practicable, designed and located so as to facilitate the safe and secure receipt, storage and issuing of explosives by a person referred to in regulation 41(2)
(b) a written procedure is prepared and implemented, after consultation with the explosive manufacturer or supplier, to prevent persons from being exposed to the significant risks associated with the receipt, storage, issuing and transportation, inadvertent initiation and the deterioration of explosives. This written procedure referred to in this sub-regulation must include the following:

Storage of explosives
(i) measures to ensure that every container used for the storage of explosives, including old explosives, is –
(a) of robust construction;
(b) provided with an effective lock and the key kept only by an authorised person referred to in regulation 4.1(2);
(c) clearly marked to indicate the type of explosives to be placed therein;
(d) of a capacity determined by the employer in consultation with the explosive manufacturer or supplier;
(e)
(f) spaced apart from any other container used for storage of explosives, at a distance determined by the employer after consultation with the explosive manufacturer or supplier; approved in writing for that purpose by the employer;

(ii) measures to ensure, at every mine where there is a significant risk of old explosives being present, that adequate storage facilities are provided for such old explosives;
(iii) no person must place, or cause or permit any other person to place any other materials or any implements or tools, in the explosives containers other than those necessary for the preparation of initiation systems or primers; and
(iv) measures to ensure that primers are kept separate from other explosives and stored in a container complying with regulation 4.2(1 )(b)(î); issuing of explosives.

(v) measures to ensure, as far as reasonable practicable, that the explosives that have been ordered or issued do not exceed the explosive storage capacity of the storage facility in which it is intended to store those explosives, either underground or on surface; and

Transportation of explosives
(vi) measures to ensure, as far as reasonably practicable, that explosives are only transported in vehicles, conveyances, unopened cases or locked containers approved in writing for that purpose by the employer,

4.2(2) The employer must take reasonable measures to ensure, when mine closure is intended, or when a mine is not being worked as contemplated in section 2(2), that the Principal Inspector of Mines and the Chief Inspector of Explosives (as defined in the Explosives Act, (Act No. 15 of 2003) are notified in writing as soon as reasonably practicable, if any explosives have been left behind in the mine, of (i) the type, quantities and location of such explosives; and
(ii) the measures taken to safeguard persons from any significant risk associated with such explosives.

Destruction of explosives
42(3) The employer must ensure that a written procedure is prepared and implemented, after consultation with the explosive manufacturer or supplier, to ensure that explosives are destroyed safely and not re-used for any purpose. Such procedure must include measures to ensure that:
(i) only the competent person contemplated in regulation 4.4(1) destroys explosives;
(ii) in the case of underground coal mines, explosives must be destroyed only on surface;
(iv) the Chief Inspector of Explosives is informed in advance if more than 50kg of explosives are to be destroyed at any one time; and
(y) no person destroys explosives on surface within a horizontal distance of 150 metres of any public building, public thoroughfare, railway line, power line or any place where people congregate or any other structure, which it may be necessary to protect in order to prevent any significant risk, unless:
(a) a risk assessment has identified a lesser safe distance and any restrictions and conditions to be complied with;
(b) a copy of the risk assessment, restrictions and conditions contemplated in paragraph (a) have been provided for approval to the Principal Inspector of Mines;
(c) written permission has been granted by the Principal Inspector of Mines; and
(d) any restrictions and conditions determined by the Principal Inspector of Mines are complied with.

Approved explosives and the usage of explosives at mines
4.3(1) The employer must take reasonable measures to ensure that only explosives approved in writing by the employer are used at the mine.

4.3(2) The employer must take reasonable measures to ensure that explosives are used in accordance with a written procedure prepared and implemented for that purpose by the employer, after consultation with the explosive manufacturer or supplier.

The written procedure must include the following:
(a) All explosives must be used in the same sequence as they are issued;
(b) Under no circumstances must any blasting cartridge be broken or cut or a wrapper round any blasting cartridge be interfered with, except when preparing the blasting cartridge for the insertion of a detonator or detonating fuse;
(e) The only primers that must be permitted to be prepared are primers that are required for immediate use;
(d) Where igniter cord is used, such an igniter cord must be laid as close as practicable to the face and not on, or in contact with timber or other combustible material or flammable substance not forming part of the explosives charges; and
(e) Where pumpable explosives are used, the pumpable explosives are only sensitised at a working place where explosive charges are being prepared prior to the pumpable explosives being pumped into a shot hole.

4.3(3) The employer must take reasonable measures to ensure, if explosives are manufactured at the mine, that:
(a) it is done in accordance with a written procedure prepared and implemented for that purpose after consultation with the explosive manufacturer or supplier; and
(b) all mobile and portable explosives manufacturing units at a mine are used, inspected, serviced and maintained in accordance with a written procedure prepared and implemented for that purpose after consultation with the explosives manufacturer or supplier.

4.3(4) The employer must take reasonable measures to ensure that explosive powered tools are issued, stored, used and maintained in accordance with a written procedure prepared and implemented for that purpose by the employer after consultation with the manufacturer or supplier of such explosive powered tools.

4.3(5) The employer must take reasonable measures to ensure, subject to regulation

4.3(3), that only permitted explosives are used in fiery mines.

4.3(6) The employer must take reasonable measures to ensure that a written procedure is prepared and implemented after consultation with the explosives manufacturer or supplier to prevent persons from being exposed to significant risks associated with the spillage of explosives.

Primary and Secondary blasting to be performed by a competent person
4.4(1) The employer must take reasonable measures to ensure, where primary or secondary blasting takes place, that a competent person is appointed in writing to –
(a) exercise control over all explosives to be used for blasting at those working places for which the competent person is responsible;
(b) prepare primers;
(c) examine any shot hole to be deepened to ensure it is safe to deepen;
(d) examine for and deal with misfires and sockets, in accordance with the written procedure prepared in terms of regulation 4.11;
(e) mark or indicate shot holes for drilling or to authorise the drilling of shot holes marked or indicated by another person authorised to do so by the employer, except where the shot holes were marked or indicated by means of electronic software system, including but not limited to Global Positioning System or Laser, the competent person must be required to over inspect and authorise the commencement of drilling of shot holes;
(f) exercise control over any manufacturing at the working places for which such competent person is responsible for, of pourable or pumpable explosives to be used;
(g) connect blasting rounds or circuits;
(h) charge shot holes with explosives or place explosive charges; and
(i) make safe all hot holes in terms of the written procedure contemplated in regulation 4.16(7),

Management and control over explosives
4.4(2) The employer must take reasonably practicable measures to ensure that the competent person referred to in regulation 4.4(1 ) reports to the employer, whenever explosives are delivered to the working place for which that competent person is in charge, whether or not the correct quantity of explosives was delivered.

Persons performing primary or secondary blasting may be assisted
4.4(3) The employer may appoint a competent person in writing to assist the competent person referred to in regulation 4.4(1) with the following activities:
(a) exercising control over those explosives to be used during the performance of the duties of the competent person referred to in regulation 4.4(1) as stipulated in paragraphs (b), (c), (d) and (e) below;
(b) the preparation of primers;
(c) the charging of shot holes with or the placing of explosive charges;
(d) the connecting of blasting rounds or circuits; and
(e) the handling and transport of explosives, initiation systems and accessories.

Certification of initiation apparatus nd blasting systems
4,5(f) The employer must take reasonable measures to ensure that where initiation of explosives charges takes place by means of electricity –
(a) apparatus used for the initiation of electronic detonators complies with SANS 1717-1 (2006) The design and approval of EED initiation systems for use in mining and civil blasting and SANS 551 (2010) ‘Detonators, relays and initiating devices for commercial applications’;
(b) apparatus used for the initiation of electric detonators complies with SANS 1717-2 (2006) ‘The design and approval of EED initiation systems for use in mining and civil blasting’ Part 2 “Electric Initiation System – Shot Exploder Based of SANS 1717′;
(c) apparatus used for the initiation of detonators by means of a controlled blasting system complies with SANS 1717-3 (2007) “The design and approval of detonator initiation systems for use in mining and civil blasting Part 3 Controlled Blasting System”;
(d) every shot exploder, initiator or electronic delay detonator system is tested and certified by a test laboratory accredited for this purpose by the government endorsed national accreditation body as contemplated in ARP 1717 (2010) “Guide to the regulatory requirements for the approval of detonators, initiators and initiation systems used in mining and civil blasting applications”;
(e) every inherently safe apparatus used for the testing of a circuit containing an electric detonator, electric or electronic initiatoreiectronic delay detonator or a similar device is tested and certified for that purpose by a test laboratory accredited for this purpose by the government endorsed national accreditation body approved by the approving authority as contemplated in ARP 1717; and
(f) the shot-firing apparatus is maintained in an efficient and safe working order. Each shot-exploder must be provided with a removable operating handle or key or with a locking arrangement to secure it against unauthorised use and must be marked with a serial number, and a record must be kept of all examinations and tests carried out on it.

4.5(2) The normative reference in the SANS standards in regulation 4.5(1) above are not applicable to the employer.

Precautionary measures before initiating explosive charges
4.6(1) The employer of every underground coal mine must take reasonable measures to ensure that the competent person referred to in regulation 4.4(1) does not initiate explosive charges in an underground coal mine unless the –
(a) coal to be blasted has two free faces;
(b) end of the shot hole is at least 150 millimetres short of the back of the cut providing the second of the two free faces; and
(c) portion of the shot hole between the explosive charge and the collar is completely filled with stemming and tamped, in accordance with regulation 4.14.

4.6(2) The employer of every underground coal mine must take reasonable measures to ensure that the competent person referred to in regulation 4.4(1) does not fire an explosive charge in an underground coal mine where the place where the explosive charge is to be fired is dry and dusty, unless –
(a) a permitted explosive is used; and
(b) the place of firing and all contiguous accessible place(s) within a radius of 20 metres from it at the time of firing have been wetted through watering or have been given effective treatment with incombustible dust, in all parts where dust is lodged, whether roof, floor or side.

4.6(3) The employer of every underground mine must take reasonable measures to ensure that:
(a) explosives are not brought to the working place where blasting is to be carried out unless the –
(i) drilling of shot holes have been completed;
(ii) shot holes are ready to be charged with explosives;
(iii) quantity of explosives do not exceed the estimated required quantity to be used for the blast;
(b) the competent person referred to in regulation 4.4(1) does not initiate any explosive charge unless:
(i) the shot hole between the explosive charge and the collar is completely filled with stemming material and tamped;
(ii) all persons have been removed from the working place where explosive charges are to be initiated; all entrances to the working place(s) where explosive charges are to be initiated, or to places where the safety of person(s) may be endangered by such initiation, are effectively guarded so as to prevent inadvertent access to such place(s) while such explosive charges are being initiated;
(iv) such competent person, gives or causes to be given due warning in every direction and is satisfied that no person remains where they might be exposed to danger from the initiating of such explosive charges;

4.6(4) The employer of every underground mine must take reasonable measures to ensure that the competent person referred to in regulation 4.4(1) or any person authorised to do so by the employer does not initiate an explosive charge in any underground mine where a centralised blasting system is being used, unless all persons who may be endangered by such initiation of explosive charges have been moved to a safe area.

4,6(5) The employer of every surface mine must take reasonable measures to ensure that:
(a) no person remains or approaches, or is caused or permitted to remain or approach, within 15 metres of any shot hole being charged with explosives, unless such person is assisting in the charging up of shot holes with explosives;
(b) except with the written permission of the Principal Inspector of Mines explosives are not brought to the working place where blasting is to be carried out until the shot holes are ready to be charged with explosives and the quantity of explosives brought to the working place do not exceed the estimated required quantity;
(c) before the initiation of explosive charges, an adequate number of guards are stationed at a safe distance determined by a risk assessment to prevent persons accessing the blasting area and that the guards remain at the safe distance until the initiation of explosive charges is completed and the guards are recalled by the competent person referred to in regulation 4.4(1): and
(d) at least three minutes before an explosive charge is initiated, the competent person referred to in regulation 4.4(1) gives due warning of the initiation of explosive charges.

4.7 The employer must take reasonable measures to ensure that when blasting takes place, air and ground vibrations, shock waves and fly material are limited to such an extent and at such a distance from any building, public thoroughfare, railway, power line or any place where persons congregate to ensure that there is no significant risk to the health or safety of persons.

4.8 The employer must take reasonable measures to ensure that the stemming or tamping is not withdrawn from a shot hole that has been charged with explosives except when dealing with misfired holes in accordance with the provisions of regulation 4.11(5).

A dust explosion in a confined area(Photo; Gexcon).
A dust explosion in a confined area(Photo; Gexcon).

Precautions after charges have been initiated
4.9 The employer must take reasonable measures to ensure that after explosive charges have been initiated or misfired holes have been re-initiated, the competent person referred to in regulation 4.4(1) does not approach, or causes or permits any other person to approach, within the range of the exploding charges until such competent person is satisfied that all the explosive charges have exploded or until a period of 30 minutes has expired, after the initiation of the charges.

Precautions when initiating by means of electricity
4.10(1) The employer must take reasonable measures to ensure that, where initiating takes place by means of electricity, the competent person referred to in regulation

4.4(1), after such competent person has connected the blasting cable to the detonator wires of any explosive charge or charges and before such explosive charge or charges have been initiated, does not-
(a) remain or approach, or cause or permit any other person to remain or approach, within a distance where such person may be endangered by the initiating of such explosive charges, except for the purpose of examining the blasting circuit; and
(b) examine the blasting circuit, or cause or permit the blasting circuit to be examined, unless both leads are disconnected from any source of electricity, whether for initiating explosive charges or testing the blasting circuit.

410(2) The employer must, where initiation takes place by means of electricity, take reasonable measures to ensure that the competent person referred to in regulation

4,4(1)(a) only uses a blasting cable provided for that purpose and which is in good order and of sufficient length to ensure that the blasting cable cannot come into contact with any other cable or electrical apparatus;
(b) secures the initiating device of the blast in an adequate and reasonable manner so as to prevent unauthorised access or use of the blasting system;
(c) connects the blasting cable to the detonator wires of any explosive charge or charges or to the wires of the initiator or similar device only after completing all blasting precautions, other than those referred to in paragraphs (d), (e) and (g) of this regulation;
(d) does not apply any electrical test to the blasting circuit except through the blasting cable and from a place of safety;
(e) does not connect the blasting cable to the terminals of the initiating device until immediately before initiation of explosive charges or attempting to initiate the explosive charges;
(f) except in the case of a remotely operated centralised electric blasting system, immediately after initiating or attempting to initiate the explosive charges, disconnects both leads of the blasting cable from the initiating device and then –
(i) removes the operating handle or key of the initiating device; or
(h) secures the locking arrangement of the initiating device and removes the key;
(g) in the case of a remotely operated centralised electric blasting system, does not connect the blasting cable to the terminals of the blasting box until immediately before leaving such competent person’s working place at the end of the shift; and
(h) in the case of a remotely operated centralised electric blasting system, disconnects immediately at the commencement of the shift any blasting cable from the terminals of the blasting box;

4.10(3) The employer must take reasonable measures to ensure that, after the explosive charges have been initiated by means of electricity, the competent person referred to in regulation 4.4(1):
(a) carefully examines for misfired holes where the charges have been initiated, before permitting any person to work there;
(b) instructs any person engaged in clearing the broken rock, mineral or ground to report immediately to such competent person the finding of any wires that may lead to a misfired hole; and
(c) carefully traces any such wires to determine whether or not a misfired hole has occurred.

4.10(4) The employer must take reasonably practicable measures to ensure that where the initiation of explosives takes place by means of electricity and where there is a risk of an explosive charge being initiated by lightning, operations in connection with the preparation or initiation of explosive charges are not started or continued on the approach of or during a thunderstorm and that no person remains, or is caused or permitted by any other person to remain, within an area where any person may be injured by the accidental initiation of explosives.

Precautions for misfires, sockets and old explosives
411 The employer must take reasonable measures to ensure that a written procedure is prepared and implemented, after consultation with the explosive manufacturer or supplier, to prevent persons from being exposed to the significant risk associated with misfires, sockets and old explosives. Such procedure must include measures to ensure that:

4.11(1) no person gains inadvertent access to any misfired hole which is not immediately dealt with, and which measures should include clearly marking the misfired hole or barricading it off and requiring reporting of the misfired hole to all subsequent shifts, at the start of each such shift, until the misfired hole has been dealt with;

4.11(2) in any shaft in the course of being sunk, in addition to the requirements of regulation 4.9:
(a) the competent person referred to in regulation 4.4(1) makes a sketch showing the position of every misfired hole and sockets;
(b) every sketch referred to in regulation 4.11(2) is kept at the mine for a period of at least seven days unless directed otherwise in writing by the Principal Inspector of Mines; and
(c) the washing or blowing over and the preparation of the sketch required in terms of regulation 4.11(2) is done at least once a day under the immediate supervision of the person authorised to do so by the employer, and that this authorised person ensures that the washing or blowing over has been effectively done and the sketch properly prepared by means of personal inspection;

4.11(3) explosives are only extracted from any misfired hole by a means determined for this purpose after consultation with the explosives manufacturer or supplier;

4,11(4 ) the person extracting explosives from a misfired hole;
(a) ensures as far as reasonably practicable that all the explosives n the misfired hole are extracted; and
(b) recovers all explosives that have been extracted from the misfired hole;

4,11(5) no person removes or causes any other person to remove the plugs that are used to plug sockets or misfired holes unless such plugs are removed by the competent person referred to in regulation 4.4(1) for the purpose of inspection or are removed at the end of the shift prior the initiating, of explosive charges;

4.11(6) In all surface mines the competent person referred to in regulation 4.4(1):
(a) re- initiates the misfired hole; or
(b) drills or causes to be drilled in the presence of such competent person, a relieving hole not less than 150 millimetres deeper than the misfired hole and which relieving hole is parallel to and not nearer than one metre to the misfired hole and that such competent person charges and initiates this relieving shot hole and recovers the explosives liberated from the misfired hole; or
(e) extracts the explosives from the misfired hole in accordance with the provisions of regulation 4.11(3).

4,11(7) in underground mines, except underground coal mines, the competent person referred to in regulation 4.4(1):
(a) examines every socket and misfired hole to ascertain its depth, direction and whether it contains any explosives, by a means determined by the employer after consultation with the explosives manufacturer or supplier; and
(b) extracts explosives from the misfired hole in accordance with the provisions of regulation 4.11(3) and plugs the socket with a plug supplied for that purpose by the employer; or
(c) re-primes and blasts; or
(d) charges up the misfired holes with explosives and initiates the explosive charges; or
(e) blasts the misfires at the end of the shift;

4,11(8) In underground coal mines the competent person referred to in regulation 4.4(1):
(a) where a misfired hole is in stone, extracts the explosives from the misfired hole in accordance with the provisions of regulation 4.11(3) and charges up the misfired holes with explosives and blasts the misfires before or at the end of the shift;
(b) where a misfired hole is in a coal, drills or causes to be drilled in the presence of such competent person, a relieving shot hole parallel to and not nearer than 300 millimetres to the misfired hole and that such competent person charges and initiates the explosives charge contained in the relieving shot hole before or at the end of the shift,

Precautionary measures for marking, drilling and blasting
4.12 The employer must take reasonable measures ensure that a written procedure is prepared and implemented, after consultation with the explosive manufacturer or supplier, to prevent persons from being exposed to the significant risk associated with marking, drilling and blasting of shot holes. Such procedure must include measures to ensure that:

4.12(1) in underground mines:
(a) before the competent person referred to in regulation 4.4(1) points out or marks any shot hole for drilling, such competent person:
(i) removes or causes to be removed all loose or loosened rock, mineral or ground to a safe distance from the shot hole determined by a risk assessment; and
(ii) searches for any misfired hole or socket within a distance of at least two metres from the proposed position or mark.
(b) no person drills or causes or permits to be drilled any shot hole –
(i) unless the competent person referred to in regulation 4.4(1) has clearly marked the position and direction of the shot hole with paint or other suitably visible material, or, if such marking is impracticable, has pointed out the exact position and direction of the shot hole;
(ii) unless it is placed more than 150 millimeters from any socket and is drilled in such a direction that it will nowhere come nearer than 150 millimeters from any socket;
(iii) unless it is placed more than two metres from any misfire and is drilled in such a direction that it will nowhere come nearer than two metres from any misfired hole; and
(iv) if it deviates from the position and direction indicated as contemplated in paragraph (i) above;
(c) no person drills or causes or permits to be drilled any shot hole in any shaft, drive, crosscut, winze, raise, bord, stall or other similar confined space underground where there is known to be a misfired hole until the misfired hole has been dealt with in accordance with the provisions of regulation 4,11(3);
(d) no person deepens or causes or permits any other person to deepen any hole which has been left standing or which is not completed at the end of a shift, unless:
(i) it has not been charged with explosives and it has been clearly described by the competent person referred to in regulation 44(1) in charge of the shift leaving work to the competent person referred to in regulation 4.4(1) in charge of the shift about to commence; or
(ii) the competent person referred to in regulation 4.4(1) examines such hole and finds it not to contain any explosives, or causes this to be done.

4.12(2) in surface mines:
(a) before any competent person referred to in regulation 4.4(1) points out or marks any shot hole for drilling or authorises any other person to point out or mark the position and direction of any shot hole for drilling, such competent person searches for any misfired hole or socket within a distance of at least two metres from the proposed position or mark.
(b) no person drills or causes or permits to be drilled any shot hole in any surface mine where there is known to be a misfired hole unless the shot hole is so drilled that it will nowhere come nearer than two metres to the misfired hole or unless the misfired hole has been dealt with in accordance with the provisions of regulation 4.11(3).
(c) no person drills or causes or permits to be drilled any shot hole, unless:
(i) it is placed more than 150 millimetres from any socket and is drilled in such a direction that it will nowhere come nearer than 150 millimetres to any socket;
(ii) it is a shot hole that deviated from the position and direction indicated in paragraph (a) above; and
(iii) no person deepens or causes or permits any other person to deepen any shot hole that has been left standing or which has not been completed at the end of a shift, unless it has not been charged with explosives and has been clearly described by the competent person referred to in regulation 4A(1) in charge of the shift leaving work to the competent person referred to in regulation 4.4(1) in charge of the shift about to commence.

Prevention of flammable gas and coal dust explosions
4.13 The employer of every underground mine must take reasonable measures to ensure that:

4.13(1) a blow out, ignition of flammable gas or initiation of a coal dust explosion does not occur due to the design and positioning of the shot holes or due to the type of explosives that are used

4.13(2) initiating devices or systems used in blasting operations are designed not to cause a methane or coal dust explosion;

4.13(3) testing for flammable gas is done in accordance with a written procedure prepared and implemented for this purpose; and

4.13(4) no explosives are initiated where flammable gas or coal dust may be present in sufficient quantities to cause a flammable gas or coal dust explosion or to cause flammable gas to burn.

Shot holes to be stemmed and tamped
4,14 The employer must take reasonable measures to ensure that:

4.14(1) tamping of each shot hole is of a minimum length of 0.4m or a third of the length of the shot hole, whichever is the greater, to a maximum length equal to the burden used in the blast pattern; and

4.14(2) no explosives contained in a shot hole are initiated unless the portion of the shot hole between the explosives and the collar is stemmed and tamped by means of a material determined for that purpose by the employer after consultation with explosive manufacture or supplier.

Amount or mass of explosives in a shot hole
4.15 The employer must take reasonably practicable measures to ensure that the maximum amount or mass of explosives used per shot hole is according to the manufacturer’s or suppliers recommendations.

General precautions
4.16 The employer must take reasonable measures to ensure that:
4.16(1) in any mine other than a coal mine, no explosive charges are initiated during the shift unless –
(a) such explosive charges are necessary for the purpose of secondary blasting or re- initiating the misfired holes in development faces;
(b) written permission for such initiation has been granted by a person authorised to do so by the employer; and
(c) reasonable precautions have been taken to prevent, as far as possible, any person from being exposed to smoke or fumes from such initiation of explosive charges;

4.16(2) no blasting operations are carried out within a horizontal distance of 500 metres of any public building, public thoroughfare, railway line, power line, any place where people congregate or any other structure, which it may be necessary to protect in order to prevent any significant risk, unless:
(a) a risk assessment has identified a lesser safe distance and any restrictions and conditions to be complied with;
(b) a copy of the risk assessment, restrictions and conditions contemplated, in paragraph (a) have been provided for approval to the Principal Inspector of Mines;
(c) shot holes written permission has been granted by the Principal Inspector of
Mines; and
d) any restrictions and conditions determined by the Principal inspector of Mines are complied with.

4.16(3) no person smokes, lights a fire or brings a naked light or flame, within a distance of 10 metres of where explosives are being loaded, transported, off loaded, handled or explosive charges are being prepared;

4.16(4) in any mine blasting take place only at a time determined in writing by the employer;

4.16(5) in surface mines, a written procedure is prepared and implemented, after consultation with the explosive manufacturer or supplier, to prevent persons from being exposed to the significant risks associated with hot holes. Such procedure must include:
(a) where there is a significant risk of hot holes occurring, that the competent person referred to in regulation 4.4(1) measures the temperature of the, and
(b) that the temperatures of the shot holes are measured at any point throughout the length of the shot hole and recorded prior and during charging up operations.

4.16(6) a written procedure is prepared and implemented after consultation with explosives manufacturer or supplier to ensure that sleep-over blasts are carried out safely;

4.16(7) a written procedure is prepared and implemented, after consultation with the explosive manufacturer or supplier, to prevent persons from being exposed to significant risks associated with secondary blasting. The written procedure must include measures to ensure that:
(a) all persons are moved to a safe area prior to secondary blasting taking place;
(b) guards are placed at all entrances at a safe distance determined by a risk assessment, to the area where secondary blasting is to take place; and
(c) written permission from a person authorised by the employer to do so, is granted before secondary blasting is carried out.

4,18(8) the competent person referred to in regulation 4.4(1):
(a) takes all reasonable precautions to safeguard every person assisting such competent person in the preparation of explosive charges against an accident;
(b) only charges shot holes with explosives within a reasonable time of initiation and after all persons not required to assist in the charging have been removed to a safe distance determined by risk assessment;
(c) charges only the shot holes or prepare only the explosive charges that are intended to be initiated at the next blast and, while explosives charges are awaiting initiation, ensures that they are not interfered with;
(d) except as may be necessary to re- initiate a misfired hole, does not insert more than one detonator into an explosive charge, provided that in wet workings two detonators may be used only if they are both inserted into the same cartridge and securely fastened to it;
(e) only uses a means, appliance or material supplied by the employer for the purpose of initiating of explosive charges or testing of a blasting circuit; and
(f) before any charge is initiated, takes adequate measures to prevent injury to persons or damage to property caused by blasting operations.

417 No person:
417(1) may drill or blast any shot hole in a subterranean tunnel intended to be used for purposes other than extracting minerals, unless –
(a) a risk assessment has identified a lesser safe distance and any restrictions and conditions to be complied with;
(b) a copy of the risk assessment, restrictions and conditions contemplated, in paragraph (a) have been provided for approval to the Principal Inspector of Mines;
(c) written permission has been granted by the Principal Inspector of Mines; and
(d) any restrictions and conditions determined by the Principal Inspector of Mines are complied with;

4.17(2) may smoke, light a fire or bring a naked light or flame, within a distance of lo metres of where explosives are being loaded, transported, off loaded, handled or explosive charges are being prepared;

4.17(3) who is engaged in handling explosives or who is travelling on a vehicle on which explosives are being transported may carry matches or any other means of producing a flame or a spark;

4.17(4) warned of the initiation of explosive charges as contemplated in regulation 4.6(5)(d) may remain in or enter the unsafe area surrounding the place where the initiation of explosives is to take place.

4.18 Every person must report, in a manner prescribed by the employer, without delay any case of gassing, however slight, to ensure that such case receives prompt medical attention.

Schedule: Chapter 22.4
COMPETENT PERSON FOR EXPLOSIVES

22.4.1(1) For purposes of:
1. Regulation 4.4(1) “competent person” means a person who is in charge of workmen in a working place at the mine and who is the holder of a certificate or qualification recognised by the Department for this purpose, valid for the class of mine to which the mine belongs.

2. Regulation 4.4(3) “competent person” means a person who:
(a) has been assessed and found competent against a skills programme recognised by the MQA for this purpose; or
(b) (i) is qualified by virtue of his/her knowledge, training, skills and experience to perform the activities contemplated in regulation 4.4(3);
(ii) is familiar with the provisions of regulation 4 which apply to the work to be performed by the person; and
(iii) has been trained to recognise any potential or actual danger to health or safety that may arise from the work to be performed by the person.

Source; Government Gazette 38970, GNR 584 of 2015. The New Explosives Regulations are effective within three months, thus in October 2015

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