Exam Q&A extracts are posted for comparison to local approaches and training material. The extract is not comprehensive and does not represent a full course, exam, or qualification. Approaches and legislative elements vary among African countries.
Due to length, this theme is divided into several posts, based on different OHS exam theme sections;
• Risk management principles questions
• OHS legislative approaches questions
• OHS corporate culture questions
• OHS legal duties questions
• OHS related labour relations questions
• Occupational health and safety representative functions questions
• Occupational health and safety advisor functions questions
• OHS management systems questions
• Occupational safety and behavioural management questions
• Occupational health management questions
• Occupational hygiene management questions
• Workplace ergonomics management questions
• Occupational environmental management questions
• OHS internal audit management questions
• OHS incident investigation questions
Risk management principles questions
ISSMEC is the acronym for ‘Identification of work, Standards or work established, Standards of accountability established, Measuring performance, Evaluating performance, Correcting deficiencies (and commending success)’.
This approach illustrates an important change in accident theory between the earlier [Henrich] Bird theory, along with Heinrich’s original model of ‘blaming’ workers for accidents, to a systems or management control model.
Safety practitioners approach risk management as a system-wide assessment of risks and risk control, with emphasis on worker safety and health. It is not effective to blame workers after assessing risk. Risk management does not direct safety practitioners to ‘develop controls’ for identified risks.
Perceptions of risk may affect tolerance for certain types of hazards. Bias in judgement is affected by value assumptions. Behaviour is based on cultural and personal factors, leading to subjective interpretations of evidence.
Risk management (RM) elements appear in global ISO quality management and OHSAS health and safety management standards. The basic philosophy of Risk Identification and Control within in the Quality Management System consists of five steps, named IEPIM;
• Identification of hazards and risks
• Evaluation of risk elements in each hazard
• Planning of control measures and development of action plan
• Implementation of control measures and action plan
• Monitoring progress and implementation periodically.
These steps correspond to section 4.3.1 of OHSAS 18001 and ISO 14001 standards.
To comply with management control and continual improvement aspects (section 4) of OHSAS 18001 and ISO 14001, the ISSMEC model is applied;
Identify work to be performed
Set standards for procedures and instructions
Set standards for accountability and roles
Measure performance against standards
Evaluate performance against standards
Commend role players for implementation, or correction and improvement.
Sources of extracts in this series of posts
SA Mining Qualifications Authority (MQA)
Solidarity Certificate in basic Occupational Health and Safety, 2009, for HS Representatives
SA Department of Labour Compliance conference March 2012
Master Builders SA
Buildsafe SA Safety Alerts
Board of Canadian Registered Safety Practitioners (BCRSP) textbooks
BCRSP sample HSE exam questions and answers
Buildsafe SA Best Practice Bulletins
The extracts do not reflect a comprehensive training course, qualification or exam. Approaches and legislative elements differ in various African countries.
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